The origin of the gralla

Click to get to a research work I wrote in 2003 on The origin of the gralla, here in its English translation.

The text of this writting on the Origin of gralla which I just added, is based on an earlier article of mine (year 2002) in catalan, more bulky, which I prepared for the University and was splitted in 4 seccions:

I. The gralla today
II. The history of gralla from 18th century to 20th century,
III. European antecedents from the Middle Ages, and
IV. The popular oboes of the neighbouring countries: rest of Spain, France, Italy, and the arabic world.

Now it seems fitting for me to recover here the Section II. of the text just mentioned, because it includes a few details more of the history of gralla, participating in the popular feasts of the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. However, I do not include the part of Attachments, and in its place I include the extensive collection of pictures related to different aspects of gralla which I gathered, chose and used in the original work.